Jewish Purity In The City Of Sardis (rev. 3:4-5)

4 But you have a few people in Sardis who have not soiled their garments; and they will walk with Me in white, for they are worthy.

The book of Revelation and its author seem to be positively preoccupied with the central ideas of Israelite purity. We will repeatedly see this commitment to purity throughout. If the book of Revelation can be called Jewish, or more accurately an Israelite first century document, then it is hardly surprising that it has a high concern for ritual purity since this was central to Israelite society as a whole. The imagery of white robes, whether connected with the Israelite Essene movement or not, show the importance of this purity requirement and commitment. King Solomon in summarizing his wisdom, encourages young man of Israel to make life count and to do the following:

“Go then, eat your bread in happiness and drink your wine with a cheerful heart; for God has already approved your works. Let your clothes be white all the time, and let not oil be lacking on your head.” (Ecc. 9:7–8)

This particular reference although way early for the time of the writings of the Letter of Revelation nevertheless shows clearly that the estimate of white-cloths wearing was there even in the Ancient Israel. In much later Jewish apocalyptic work 4 Ezra we read:

“Those who have departed from the shadow of this age have received glorious garments from the Lord. Take again your full number, O Zion, and conclude the list of your people who are clothed in white, who have fulfilled the Torah of the Lord. (4 Ezra 2:39-41)

It is probably that the traditions such as exemplified in the above quotations found its special expression in the nationwide Essene movement with their distinctive dress code. They, unlike others, wore white at all times (Josephus, Jewish Wars 2.119-161) in the same way as did the Greek Pythagorean philosophical group. (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 15.371). In both Israelite and the Greco-Roman psyche there was an association between white color and purity. White clothes make it very easy to see stains and hard to keep clean. This then determines whether one has somehow been stained or polluted.

The believers in Sardis, as far as Jesus saw it, were dressed in white and yet most had stained white clothes that rendered them unfit for the service of Jesus’ God. They therefore could not walk where Jesus did. (Rev. 3:2b) Remember that that Jesus walked in the midst of the heavenly Menorah – the seven-branched candle stick located in the heavenly Tabernacle. To walk before God where Jesus walks, to serve Him in rightful purity, required unstained white clothes. Of all the many followers of Christ, few managed to live and work in Sardis in a way that Christ the heavenly High Priest judged as right and true, and therefore a sacrifice acceptable before the Father.

5 He who overcomes will thus be clothed in white garments; and I will not erase his name from the book of life, and I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels. 6 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’

Once again the reward (white garments) is promised for overcoming (avoiding the worship of pagan gods in favor of Israel’s god alone). It was extremely difficult to remain undefiled, given the socio-religious pressures in Roman Empire for Christ-followers. It was especially difficult if these were Gentiles, who were part of the Jewish coalition that have not joined the Jews through proselyte conversion. Because of this, Jesus declares that the names of those who do overcome will remain in perpetuity on the list of the Book of Life.

While this is not the perfect place to have an in-depth discussion on a fascinating section from the Babylonian Talmud that deals with 4 rabbinic figures ascended to Paradise (Pardes); it should nevertheless be mentioned. They all see there Angel Metatron. He is pictured there, sitting down to record the merits of Israel in a special remembrance scroll. (bHaggigah 14b-15a) In Daniel 7, while the prophet was contemplating an incredible vision of four heavenly beings, suddenly saw something else. He wrote about it as follows in Dan. 7:9-10:

“While I was watching, thrones were set up, and the Ancient of Days took his seat. His attire was white like snow; the hair of his head was like lamb’s wool. His throne was ablaze with fire and its wheels were all aflame. A river of fire was streaming forth and proceeding from his presence. Many thousands were ministering to him; many tens of thousands stood ready to serve him. The court convened and the books were opened.”

This idea that somewhere in heaven there exists a permanent registration of people’s names and their deeds is well attested throughout both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament. Here are a few pertinent examples:

“‘But now, if you will forgive their sin…, but if not, wipe me out from your book that you have written.’ 33 The Lord said to Moses, ‘Whoever has sinned against me—that person I will wipe out of my book.’” (Ex. 32:32-33) “May they be blotted out of the book of life and may they not be recorded with the righteous.” (Ps. 69:28) Saul Paul refers to his co-workers, “Yes, and I ask you, my true companion, help these women since they have contended at my side in the cause of the gospel, along with Clement and the rest of my co-workers, whose names are in the book of life.” (Phil. 4:3) Jesus, in instructing his disciples about their priorities, said: “…do not rejoice that the spirits submit to you, but rejoice that your names stand written in heaven.” (Luke 10:20)

The address to the assembly in Sardis, as in the case with all the other congregations, ends with the fitting exhortation that the one who hears this message must obey it (3:6).

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  1. Gloria Edwards-Inatimi

    Commitment and purity it is indeed.John Donne write that ” our moralities are but our outworks, our Christianity our citadel. In India white garments are mourning clothes and widows are clad in colourless white. In the horn of Africa it is signifies a govt official and high rank. But whose mantra does iine chant? Isaiah 64v6 informs us that good deeds issuing from an impure heart are ‘filthy rags’ before The LORD GOD AL.IGHTYY.

  2. Susan

    Please remind me Dr Eli, where is your previous discussion/teaching on the statement, “Jesus walked in the midst of the heavenly Menorah”?.

  3. yetilived

    The breath of God (John 3:8) seems to serve a different purpose then what I often hear presented in Calvinism. Does the Jewish perspective of “God works” include our free will?

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      There was no unified Jewish perspective in the 1st century. And this was always a divisive topic. Essenes believed the God preordained ALL things, so not much free will. Sadducees believed that ALL is our hands, so free will abounds. Pharisees said that SOME things are predetermined, and SOME thing are left up to us. All them contributed to the theological climate of the 1st century.

  4. Debbie Cowden

    What do you men when you say “The concept that the name can be erased from the Book of Life is a very Jewish concept.” Would you elaborate on that?

    1. John Edmonds

      Hi Debbie,

      Thank you, I’ve only just had a chance to log back on, but was going to ask the same question. I’ve never come across this concept before so would love to know a lot more about this and what its implications are for us as Christians, because this is not something we are taught.

    2. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Being written and erased from the book of life idea is a well-known tradition in Jewish lore that spans thousands of years. The lore says that God has a book like that. God decides whose names are placed into it on the Day of Atonement. This is based on person’s faithfulness, piety and any factors God wishes, since he sees all. A person and his merits can be stricken from the book. Do you remember when Moses asked God to blot him out of his book in Exodus? Well, that was not a biblical book of Exodus, but presumably “the book of life”. Moses did not want to be in the book if the people will not receive mercy from God and have a chance to be there as well. There are many other places in biblical literature, historical and traditional sources about God keeping records in special books. Fun research topic for someone!

  5. Hezekiah James

    The church and in our ministries, we need more of such infromation on all the seven churches in Revelation.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      More will be coming as we do careful research and write about it.

  6. John Edmonds

    Dear Dr. Eli, I’ve been a reader since your first blog post here, but this is my first post. You’ve covered a verse that has puzzled me for some time and I would love to know the Jewish perspective on it.

    It is Rev 3:5, “He who overcomes will thus be clothed in white garments; and I will not erase his name from the book of life”.

    You briefly commented on the fact that there is a book of life…no questions or doubts there.

    However, one thing has me wondering. That Jesus, or G-d, can “erase” someone’s name from the book of life. We see it also in the other passages about the book of life that you quote.

    What does this do for the concept of “eternal salvation” or “once saved always saved”?

    I believe that we, as humans, can do nothing to erase our own or somebody else’s name as all these passages refer to G-d erasing the name and from passages such as Romans 8:39.

    So, when and why can G-d erase someone from the book of life?

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      The concept that the name can be erased from the Book of Life is a very Jewish concept. How this relates to the idea of Calvinistic perseverance of the saints (a called by Christ individual will always remain in God as he or she perseveres through all adversities of life) is a difficult issue. One thing is for sure we should not take later theologies whether Calvinist or Armenian and try to find them in the ancient Jewish texts like the Gospels. The Gospels simply unconcerned with the same issues.

    2. sonia suely

      Hello Mr. Edmonds, and the others, also, with permission: the “once saved always saved” has to pass by HEBREWS 12:14 and I think the same occours with the others quentions put here, don’t you you think so?

      But not forgetting what Jesus stated in the Gospel of John 15:3 and 17:19.

      And, about the Jewish concept Dr. Eli wrote, I think it has to do with Moses and the concept and the belief of him being a pre-figuration of Jesus comming (God said to the jews: write this to be as symbolization, in so many occasions in the Old Covenant, didn’t Him? See in the New Covenant: Hebrews 10) and, maybe, has to do with the tough and intimate conversation of Moses with God (remember that God said that with Moses He talked face-to-face, see Exodus 33:11) in that situation in which the children of Israel commited sin against God (Exodus 32:30) and Moses “argued” with God and said:”….or, erase my name of the book you wrote. ” (Exodus 32:32).

      Shalom Dr. Eli!

  7. Thomas L Jackson

    Dr Eli…so it would seem possible that the names of ALL people are written in the Book of Life…and they get erased as they fail to accept Jesus? Or do our names get written as we come to God and then can later be erased if we fail Him?… Interesting …

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Plz, see my response to John Edmond’s comment.

  8. Luis R. Santos

    Isn’t “White garments” symbolic of pure life style (sinless, obedience to YHWH’ instructions for living/Torah)?

    “…the list of your people who are clothed in white, who have fulfilled the Torah of the Lord. (4 Ezra 2:39-41) Doesn’t this parallel seem to imply that?

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg


      1. year

        But if Yeshua came to fulfill the Torah, could it be now that only those who believe and accept Yeshua as Lord and savior will receive the white garment (pure life) and therefore have their name written in the book of life?

  9. yetilived

    The “shadow of this age”(4 Ezra 2:39) and a similar passage in Hebrews “shadow of good things to come” (Hebrews 10:1) must not have been intended as an OT/NT timeline division. I have never had words to explain what happened after my repentance (BC), but the word shadow seems to describe it. The shadow/imagery was essential to the direction in life I would take (coincidently hearing the gospel), but evangelism portrayed this shadow as something negative (works/outward). I’ve always known the law whether shadow or reality in Christ had positive effects on me. The Israelites (Exodus 19:8) influenced me, rather than 16th century Christianity. Does this make me an Israelite?:)

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Yes. Let us keep on thinking together.

  10. Ron Decker

    This is a difficult passage for me to comprehend. In those days, the highest ranks in the Temple and the Government could wear white, which seems in direct contrast to Christ teachings. When reading the first part of the verse, it seemed that a pure white garment would indicate that the wearer had not prayed to God as required. Thus the verse seems to contain a paradox unexplained in the test. Help!