What Is The Throne Of Satan?

12 “And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: ‘The words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword. 13 “‘I know where you dwell, where Satan’s throne is.

Pergamum was a city that prided itself on several temples dedicated to the Roman Imperial cult. In the Roman period, the city of Pergamum, a former administrative capital of Asia Minor that later was moved to Ephesus, became a flag ship for Roman patriotism expressed in religious devotion. As with most major Greek cities, Pergamum boasted a theater, stadium, library and a healing center of Asclepius among the other buildings that were part of normal life in the Greco-Roman world.

The healing center (Asclepion) in Pergamum, considered to be the headquarters, was a part of a very large network of healing centers throughout the Roman Empire. For many years Galen, the most well-known physician in the Roman Empire and personal physician of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, worked in this Asclepion. The Pergamum library was considered second only to the world-famous library in Alexandra. The Pergamum library boasted, according to Plutarch, more than 200,000 volumes. Another account states that Marc Anthony, a Roman military commander, bequeathed the collection to Cleopatra as a reimbursement for the total destruction of the library of Alexandria’s by Julius Caesar.

Other than temples to emperors and even to the goddess Roma, the city held the high honor of hosting and maintaining a temple to Zeus – Father of all gods and man and the ruler of Olympians on Mt. Olympia in accordance with ancient Greek beliefs. Zeus was closely associated with the Roman deity Jupiter whose name means the sky or literally the “heavenly father” god. The altar to Zeus was one of the most impressive structures in Pergamum. The altar’s stairs, columns, and sculptured sides once stood forty feet (12 meters) high. Today, only the steps around the altar’s base can be seen in the Pergamum museum in Berlin. The sides of the altar were ornamented with marble panels depicting a mythical battle between Greek gods and rebellious giants who were the sons of Mother Earth.

Many have suggested that this altar to Zeus is what is meant by the throne of Satan in vs. 13. But there exist a number of other possibilities – such as the Asclepius cult headquarters or a concentration of the Imperial and Roman cult in that city. As was mentioned earlier, in Roman antiquity, the image of a sword and especially a double-edged sword was highly symbolic. So, in this city, it can truly be said that it hosted the throne of Satan, the symbol of Roman Imperial authority and rule. Christ introduced himself to the assembly of the follows of Israel’s God in Christ as “the one who has the sharp two-edged sword.” If the above identification of the throne of Satan as Roman imperial cult is correct than it would make a perfect sense for Christ here to be presented as someone with the authority of the double-edged sword.

Yet you hold fast my name, and you did not deny my faith even in the days of Antipas my faithful witness, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells.

Not much is known about the person Antipas in this passage. Later Christian tradition holds that he was ordained as the bishop of Pergamum by the Apostle John, just as was Polycarp in the city of Smyrna. The tradition also holds that he was boiled alive in a bronze kettle that resembled a bull. This first century account comes from much later Christian martyrology accounts of questionable reliability. What can safely be assumed is that by the end of the first century, when the letter of Revelation was being written, the martyrdom of Antipas already took place. It was still a fresh memory in the minds of the Christ-followers of Pergamum. No doubt, Antipas met his destiny, embracing death because he was not willing to honor and sacrifice to pagan gods. Only one God can be worshiped and adored.

14 But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, so that they might eat food sacrificed to idols and practice sexual immorality. 15 So also you have some who hold the teaching of the Nicolaitans. 16 Therefore repent. If not, I will come to you soon and war against them with the sword of my mouth.

In the section about the congregation in the city of Ephesus, we discussed the evil deeds and teachings of Nicolaitans. The most probable explanation is that the Nicolaitans were followers of the movement, dubbed Nokhal among early Christ-followers. Nokhal in Hebrew means “We will eat,” in this case referring to meat that was sacrificed to Greco-Roman Gods.

Nicolaitans of vs. 15 are connected with the evil Balaam and Balak. Their strategy to undermine Israel was the same. They wanted Israelites to worship Baal Peor. The main attraction was the sexual orgies that accompanied such worship. We read in Num. 25:1-5:

“While Israel remained at Shittim, the people began to play the harlot with the daughters of Moab. 2 For they invited the people to the sacrifices of their gods, and the people ate and bowed down to their gods. 3 So Israel joined themselves to Baal Peor, and the Lord was angry against Israel. 4 The Lord said to Moses, ‘Take all the leaders of the people and execute them in broad daylight before the Lord, so that the fierce anger of the Lord may turn away from Israel.’ 5 So Moses said to the judges of Israel, ‘Each of you slay his men who have joined themselves to Baal of Peor.’”

Christ called the assembly in Pergamum that tolerated in its mix those who both professed Christ and ate meat sacrificed to Roman gods, to repent. Christ the King threatened them with his soon-approaching judgment, calling them to finally make a choice between the God of Israel and the gods of the Roman Empire.

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  1. Thomas saul

    Asclepion is Satan if he’s not then Hermes is.
    (Revelation 18:23)” And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.”
    The greek god Hermes is the patron god of magic who protects merchants and carries the magic caduceus. The Caduceus can also be found on baphomets stomach. The caduceus is the symbol of merchants commonly mistaken as the Rod of Asclepius, a pagan symbol that represents pharma.
    Revelation 2:13 – “I know where you dwell, where Satan’s throne is.” Yeshua is talking about Pergamum.
    The site in Pergamon was founded in the 4 th Century BC Asclepion of Pergamum became one of the most famous ancient healing centers and the world’s first psychiatric hospitals.
    In greek Sorcery is pharmakeia aka pharmacy. strong’s concordance 5331 pharmakeia. The greek translation of the old testament is called the SEPTUAGINT. The septuagint was translated in Alexandria Egypt around the third century bce. The Septuagint would have used the word pharmakeia not sorcery. Greek Jews and early Christian’s would have known this. Even Christ Yeshua would have been aware of the greek translation of the old testament and the word pharmakeia. I really don’t think Zeus was Satan because he destroyed Asclepius with a thunder bolt for reanimating the dead with pharmakeia. I believe the Greek myths are a perversion of the truth that’s why father god hated it .it made him look like a rapist and womaniser and many other things that were not true. Iupiter preferred the Hebrew method of worshipping him because it was the truth. Tzedek is Hebrew for Iupiter
    and righteousness . The God of Abraham and melchizedek was Iupiter. Melchizedek literally means my king is Iupiter aka Jove .the j in Jove is a yah pronounced Yahove. Jupiter was considered to be just and righteous. I’m curious as to why Moses had a bronze rod of asclepius made then later it was considered an idol. Did Hermes hijack the Isrealites from the father god ? In the bible the word righteous can be replaced with Jupiter. My personal opinion is Saturn tried to hijack Abraham from Iupiter but he failed. I believe the isrealites were hijacked by Shabbatai aka Saturn. the Isrealites were bound to the commandments under threat of death Saturn is the god of death. Saturn is the god of binding. Why did the God of Moses use serpent symbolisim? Zeus fought a giant winged serpent in the myths and the serpent is the enemy of father god in the bible. If the bull is a symbol of Jove then it makes sense why the jealous God of death hated it. Did Yahpater incarnated as Yeshua to cancel the binding laws of Shabbatai and free the Isrealites from Shabbatai laws. If this is true Yeshua and Iupiter are the son of God Saturn/Shabbatai. Look around you will see there’s plenty of Saturn worship and symbolism in the world.

  2. Geri Ungurean

    Shalom, Dr. Eyzenberg,

    I am a fellow Jewish believer in Yeshua. My maiden name was Rosenberg. I am a freelance writer. Today I wrote a piece on the letters from Yeshua to the 7 churches. I titled the article:

    “If Jesus Wrote a Letter to Your Church – What would He say?”


    Much love in Yeshua,
    Geri Ungurean

  3. aike aizion

    I have been to israel twice to explore the hebrew roots of my faith in Yeshua The Messiah.
    It was the discovery of my life that Jesus was jewish . To learn the bible from the hebraic perspective
    is awesomely incredible and very satisfying. I continue to study messianic judaism till to this day.
    Todah rabbah for this site. May Adonai enrich you more with wisdom and prosperity.
    broaike@yahoo.com aike ayzon Manila Philippines. +639283563030

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Shalom Aike. We are glad you came to study with us. I hope that articles on the blog are helpful to you.


    that was wonderfully amazing reading about the truth and meaning behind the words in the BIBLE.
    It just draws one closer to YESHUA . I had that feeling when I visited the HOLY LAND and now there is teaching to make it more clear Thank you Dr ELI

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Welcome to our forum, Prema! Dr. Eli

  5. william harris

    Very interesting!

  6. nelson abaku

    Glory be to God for the way you are opening my mind to get to understand a book that seemed to be a mystery to me. Please, explore more

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Thank you, Nelson! Blessings, Dr. Eli

  7. David benGedaliah

    To Shiela:
    Traditional kashrut, which is the product of rabbinic thought, separates milk and meat. Scripture has only three references which can be applied (Ex 23:19; Ex 34:26; De 14:21). None of these reference relates to the general mixing of milk and meat. Rather, they are related to a pagan practice which denigrates the God-ordained importance of the fruit of the body, and specifically the first-born. While it is important not to dishonor those who believe against mixing milk and meat, it is not a Scriptural mandate. See my other comment to Renee.

    To Renee:
    You may have been confused by popular Christian teaching.

    1. Paul did not teach that we were freed from Torah (which is instruction, not law as most translations render it ). He taught that we, as believers in Yeshua, were freed from “the law” of sin and death.

    2. Kefa (Peter) was shown a sheet containing unclean foods and was told to eat. Three times, he was shown the sheet and three times he rejected the command to eat, knowing it was the voice of God. The sheet was withdrawn and the voice ceased to make the demand. The context tells us that Kefa learned that those of the Gentiles who accept the faith in Yeshua have the same “cleanness” that Jewish people who believe in Yeshua do. It does not show at any time that Kefa changed his understanding of the Scriptural prohibition against unclean foods, only those “laws” and practices that were man-made.

    Christian tradition, like Jewish tradition, tends often to override Scripture when it is convenient to do so.

  8. David benGedaliah

    Thank you for a good study. I will try to keep up with it.

    The Ruach haQodesh encouraged the disciples (Acts 15) to pass on a legal statement with regard to eating meat offered to idols (as well as only three other issues they believed were important to pass on). Paul’s statement (1 Cor. 8; 10) made the point that eating meat offered to idols was just eating meat, and that those who had difficulty were weaker in their understanding and faith. We need to separate between our perceived implications of Scripture and the expressed truth. The truth is consistent from Genesis to Revelation. If one takes a verse out of context to support a false doctrine, it is still false.

    All Scripture is the expressed Word of Adonai, and He neither changes, nor makes declarations He does not mean.

    Moses writes that Adonai declares certain meats to be “an abomination.” Within the context of these declarations (primarily Lev. 11), Adonai tells Israel that they are to be holy because “I am holy.” Are we to believe that those behaviors which Adonai called abominations are now holy or righteous?

    The traditional/historical Christian teaching claims that Adonai declared all foods equally “clean” some 1000+ years after He expressly forbade consumption of certain foods (in perpetuity). If the first claim was true, we could not trust Him to keep His Word to us and we would have to establish our own righteousness (an impossibility).

    In truth, we are using “grace” as an excuse to do whatever is right in our own eyes. It is convenient.

    To be sure, there are much weightier matters. But we must be clear about what we consider the freedom of the believer.

    Is doing Adonai’s will legalism or obedience?

    Just as with the various bodies addressed in the seven letters of Revelation, Adonai accepts me “just as I am,” but He does not expect me to stay there.

  9. Sheila Dale

    The comments left for Sonia Suely at 1:18 a.m. on May 12, 2015, were from Sheila Dale. Unfortunately, I used the Enter key on my compter before completing my name .

    1. sonia suely

      Thanks for the consideration and care for to me, Sheila. I understood the comment was from you, I just was thinking that “Sh” was a diminutive like Jim to James, Bob to Robert.

      And about the Rechabites: there’s only one chaper in the Bible which states about them, it’s in Jeremy 35, mainly verses 18-19. Excuse me if I took so long to answer you here.


  10. julie hockema

    Just a note to say thank you. I have just joined today and am so excited about what is to come. To just think of all that I have to look forward to and the wonderful teachings i that are to come. This chance to be able to learn so much more of all that came from the people who became Gods Chosen that led to the fulfilling of a multitude of prophecy’s. If not for Israel there would be no Christian faith and the bond between the two is undeniable and beautiful. Thank you once more for this opportunity.

  11. Susan Williams

    I am having a hard time reconciling this with your previous posting on the Nicolaitanes. v 14 says “But I have a FEW things against you…” and it goes on “because thou hast them that hold the doctrine of Balaam…Balak..to eat things sacrificed unto idols…” v 15 “so hast thou ALSO them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes..” If the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes was “we will eat”, then the verses would read “I have a FEW things against you..because thou hold the doctrine..to eat things sacrificed unto idols..so hast thou ALSO them that hold the doctrine of “we will eat”. Both of them seem to be same thing not a “few”. I am wondering if the reference to Balaam & Balak from Numbers 22-25 have to do with Balaam being a spiritist or medium and dealing with divinations and enchantments. And/or that Balaam wanted Balak to curse Israel and/or that Balaam died fighting against Israel by the side of his Midianite allies; Balaam’s people being Ammonites and that Balak was the king of the Moabites? Or even that Balaam wanted a kingdom for himself? Any one or all of the above would NOT have been looked upon favorably by G-d. Obviously, the brazen attitude of “we will eat” possibly “[unclean] things sacrificed to idols” would be bad and forbidden but I think there is something else here besides “eating” and it does say “I have a ‘few’ things against you”.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      I c. Thanks, Susan. Let’s keep thinking together on this one.

  12. Scott Graydon

    I always remember reading a book by Richard Wurmbrand years ago in which he claimed a Swedish newspaper had claimed the Pergamum altar had been taken to the USSR after the war and he suggested it was being used in satanic worship by the senior communists. It seems it stayed in Berlin the whole time.

  13. sam

    Thank you Dr. Eli, For showing the light on this part rev 2:2-6 because it is very interesting, I thought Satan and Zeus are only one.

  14. Janna Agnello

    I did an in-depth (for me) study of the seven churches mentioned in Revelation for a women’s bible study group a year ago, and am happy to see that I didn’t miss the mark in my understanding of it by too much according to your presentation of it. I have always been most thankful of the many times the LORD says “Therefore repent” even after listing all the terrible things we, as humans, do in our sins against Him. Old and New Testament are so filled with His merciful ways! Thank you for your teachings. I am enjoying them so much. Shalom!

  15. Kat H

    I find the use of the double-edge sword interesting. The symbol itself seems to be neutralized (both positive & negative uses). A great way to search the heart :) One question —why does the text say “my faith” vs “your faith”? (“and you did not deny my faith” / “You did not renounce your faith in me). I am not sure how to read that.

  16. Catrina

    Thank You Lord for this! This just made me feel not so alone in my thoughts today. I needed this. Shalom <3 <3 <3

  17. Drs. Charles van den Berg

    Exodus 26:31 Exodus 36:35

  18. Drs. Charles van den Berg

    Hebrews 4:12 Hebrews 10:20

  19. Drs. Charles van den Berg

    Vers 2:12 can be seen as the center of one of the main streams of revelation in Scripture. The aim of Satan to sit on the throne and the ultimate fulfilment of Divine judgements on the old serpent, as pronounced in Gen. 3:15: “ The seed of the woman shall bruise the serpents’s head”. The seed of the woman revealed as the powerful overcoming tho-edged sword, The Word of God, Jesus Christ (Hebrew 4:12; Rev.1:16; Rev. 3:12; Rev.19:13-16). I think there is a meaningful connection between the flaming sword of the cherubim at the East of The Garden of Eden to keep and guard the way to the tree of life, the cherubs skillfully worked with cherubim the veil to keep and guard the way to the Holy of Holies (the veil the flesh of the living Word Hebrew 10:20), the judgmental sword out in the mouth of the King the Kings (Rev. 19:13-16) to free the way to the New Jerusalem.

  20. Scott

    Can “eating the food of idols” be associated with the apparent mixing of worship we have within Christ followers today? Is it a general biblical term for the world’s way of worship? I see many profess Christ yet celebrate the world’s holidays that are not in the Word of God by putting Jesus in them and calling them “holy” by their understanding.
    They are not literally eating “sacrificed” meat, however the symbols and celebrations are still there. The mixing is there. Thank you for your article.

  21. Lisa

    Here is a question, what is the true meaning to be married pertaining to Jewish? Someone once asked, do you have to be married “by law”? Because Adam and Eve were not married by law. Someone said, it is not considered pre-marital sex if it is with someone who is commited to you and you accept each other and that does not require law to state that you are married. And the word fornication means sex with several partners, without commitment to marriage. Are all these statements true? Thank you so much.

  22. steven

    I have been taught that the word Nicolaitans meant to rule over, such as the clergy laity system we have in our churches. It seems to fit though what you are saying. I appreciate your insites.

  23. jane z. mazzola

    I am overwhelmed w/thanksgiving.
    Jane M.

  24. Dr.Alfred Branson

    Thank you for making this studies available for me.I am grateful to God and you.The study is expositry and wonderful.

  25. Woka

    First of all-thank you and blessings over you for making these wonderful truths available. As I was reading and coming to…”so that they might eat food sacrificed to idols” I had a thought I have never considered. Obviously, this physical eating of idol sacrifices was the specific issue at hand but I suddenly thought of how we also entertain “idols” of all sorts in our lives without truly considering them idols. Maybe our station in life, our children, our work, even our studies-thereby “eating” (being satisfied) with that sustenance instead of Him. I believe I will set a watch over myself so I don’t fall into the trap of Pergamum and a “throne” I never intended to worship!

  26. Victor Yate

    Puede encontrar información en español

    1. Eric de Jesús Rodríguez Mendoza


      Aquí encontrarás contenido en Español


  27. Bruce C

    Thank our GOD for you and others like you. You are an answer to a prayer of mine before our GOD to understand about the nicolaitans in this verse. May our GOD continue to use you the to teach the brothers and sisters around the world these deeper truths of righteousness that are before us but we are blinded sometimes until we get together with others of like faith in the GOD who was before all others. Hallelujah!!!

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Glad to be of help 🙂

  28. Sara Cecilia

    Blessed Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg,

    As I recall how you told us about a similar cult in Jerusalem, (something totally unexpected) I wish to refer to this book review (https://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j24_1/j24_1_32-34.pdf )
    as well as to a Northern–Chinese song. I beg you pardon me for not having learnt Chinese characters but rather put down in pinyin what I memorized (the first line being “Mang, mang wu ji lanside gu xiang” and may be familiar to your Chinese friends) : singing “kun peng nan yue guang mao de tu di” the husband of my tutor explained how the ‘kun peng’ was a mythical creature.

    And of course I have never seen not can testify about living dragons!

    Anyhow, Herodotus in his third volume of ”Historiae” (tr. Henry Clay, 1850, pp. 75-76.) “tell how these animals could sometimes be found in the Arabian spice groves. He describes their size, coloration, and reproduction. It seems that venomous flying serpents were infamous for living in frankincense trees.”

    Shalom over Israel!


    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Interesting, indeed.

  29. Sheila Dale

    When I lived in Israel and encountered some…not all….Messianic Believers I was saddened that they had learned the ways of the gentiles and no longer observed Kashrut laws. I would talk with them about that and ask what they didn’t understand about God’s word which said they should observe these ‘laws’ forever….what does forever mean? I wish I had known then what Nicolaitans meant….it might have given them pause. I don’t mean this to be judgmental; Only God knows one’s heart and how or why someone chooses certain actions. For me this is a dire warning because I prescribe to the Hebrew Roots of my Christian faith. Today we are being more and more exposed to Halal meats in our grocery stores and restaurants. If the meaning of Nicolaitans is what you say, then it requires me to seek alternative sources for my meat purchases or do without. Thank you for bringing this to my attention. I say I observe Kosher, but really…… only in that I do not eat certain foods and do not combine meat and dairy. The meat is not actually kosher……so where do I stand with that???? Lots to think about. PS: I’m a new student currently taking The Jewish Origins of the New Testament. Love the course and all you are doing to further our understanding of the history and culture of First Century Christianity. Thank you!!

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Dear Sheila, let’s keep thinking about these issues together! So glad you are enjoying the course. Blessings and much peace, Dr. Eli

      1. Rudolf Horst

        Thank you VERY much, Dr. Eli, for your interesting insights and profound explanations. I visited Pergamum and saw the original steps of the Zeus Temple there (even took photos). I also visited the Pergamum Museum in Berlin where NOT the original steps can be seen but some of the original marble panels.
        The structure of the temple looks like a giant ancient royal throne on which not only the king sat but also his wife(s?) and sometimes special guests to be honored by the king. So, I believe that the author of Revelation thought of this temple as “throne of Satan”. In the Asclepion I did not see anything that could suggest a throne of Satan – unless the Christian writer thought of the many images of snakes (symbol of the god Asclepios) whic might remind Jews and Christians of Genesis 3, of the temptation and the fall of Adam and Eve, caused by the Evil One = Satan.

      2. sonia suely

        Mrs. Sheila Dale, with your permission: God said forever to the jews, as He said, also, forever to the rechabites, not to the gentiles nor for the Crhistians. Jesus Christ, Himself, said to His follwers that he’s Lord of The Sabbath; that sabath was made to the man, not the man to the sabbath. Thank you for your attention.

        1. Sh

          Thank you, Sonia Suely, for your comments. It is what you said that is at the heart of my seeking to understand from a First Century perspective what God requires of me as a Believer in Yeshua (Jesus).
          In my comments above, my interaction with the Messianic Believers was with Jews who now believe and accept Yeshua as their Messiah….for that reason it seemed they were still under the requirement of ‘forever’.
          For me, way back in the l980’s ,way before I knew anything about a gentile movement we often call Messianic or Hebrew Roots, God convicted me that the foods he prescribed as clean and unclean were for me as well. When I was 6 years old and memorizing The Ten Commandments, I asked my mother why we didn’t go to church on Saturday….I already understood that the Jews worshipped on Friday night and Saturday and they called it the Sabbath. Unusual at that age…yes…but my mother listened to a radio station in Chicago, Illinois, that aired their Bible instructors’ teachings throughout the day. I got a ‘seminary’ teaching at a very young age!
          Volumes have been written as to whether a gentile Believer is required to observe the Torah commandments. Peter’s vision of the unclean animals is later defined by him as referring to ‘men’. He puts together the three times he spoke with the Lord that he never ate unclean food with the announcement that three men were standing at the door wanting to talk with him. They were gentiles sent from the Centurion Cornelius.
          Later the Council in Jerusalem made a determination that they required only four things from a Gentile Believer…..that included not eating things strangled, not eating blood (or maybe something else), not eating anything offered to idols, and finally, not to be involved in sexual impurity (fornication). BUT, they also went on to say that the gentiles would hear the Torah being taught in the synagogues. I ask myself if the Jerusalem Council set forth minimum standards and expected them to learn and grow as they heard the Torah being read and taught in the synagogues. For me, this is a plausible conclusion.
          Later, Paul taught that love should be the overriding principle when dealing with that issue. Since fellowship with each other was dependent on eating meals together, I believe Paul was saying that we should not put a stumbling block in front of less mature believers. In fact, don’t make it a decisive or derisive issue. Make love for one another and the unity of the group your priority.
          We are all on a journey….this is where I am today…..THANK YOU so very much for your comments. I had never heard of Rechabites so you have sparked my interest in that subject and group of people. : – )

    2. Renee Pearman

      Good morning Sista, I’m not understanding your commitment to the Christian faith yet are you like the Galatians? Paul taught that they were freed from the law and were not to put themselves back under the law. Peter received a word from Christ that all foods were ‘now’ acceptable and Paul taught that we are free to eat all meat because we know that there are no other gods to receive any sacrifices from anyone. We only needed to abstain if we were with someone a little (weaker) younger in the faith who had not yet learned of its freedom In Christ; because it may throw them for a loop, we were to set aside our freedom for that moment in deference to that brother and abstain from that meat for that meal with them. Our Messianic Brothers have not learned ‘the ways of the gentiles’, they have learned ‘The Way’ of Jesus. “There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, not male and female for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” Gal. 3:28

      1. Sheila Dale

        Dear Renee Pearman….Shalom : – ) Thank you for your comments. I spent a whole afternoon a few days ago writing a reply to you, but with a new computer that I’m just getting used to the keyboard, etc., I would accidently end up deleting my several attempts at writing to you. I think it has to do with my settings but not familiar enough with Windows 8 to figure that out.
        At any rate, I hope you will forgive me for not writing a direct reply to you this time, but I refer you to the reply I just posted to Sonia Suely. Although it doesn’t speak directly to the three main thoughts in your comments, I think it will give you a perspective I’m coming from at this time in my life.

        THANK YOU for your comments, it caused me to re-read the Book of Galatians and also the chapters in Acts to consider my perspective at this time. It’s always good to review and see if there is a correction needed.
        The Book of Galatians is a very difficult book to understand because we probably don’t understand the culture and people it is addressing. Since scripture can not contradict itself, we have to look at other books in the Bible to help us understand what Paul must be teaching there, and extra biblical sources to understand the cultural setting at that time.
        In Gal. 3:28 I think Paul was emphasizing the ONENESS of the body of Christ, but oneness doesn’t mean ‘identical’ which could defer to the idea that gentiles are different so therefore are not required to observe certain ‘laws’. But considering other scriptures (see my reply to Sonia Suely) I think that emphasis is to encourage love among the brethren; unity not division. Jesus taught that He did not come to do away with the ‘law’….Torah, but that the summation or intent of the ‘law’ was to love your neighbor as yourself.
        Well, I’m still learning and still open to consider other’s opinions.
        Thank you again for taking time to reply…..as Dr. Eli says, “….let’s go on this journey together….”

    3. yilmar

      This study has some good points, but since I have taught this section many times over the years, several additional things are fresh in my mind and some corrections.

      1) The name of the city in the Greek NT is Pergamos, not Pergamum. Why is this important? Because as usual in such books as Revelation, this is very symbolic, “per” meaning the superlative of “gamos = married,” in other words, Pergamos is “thoroughly married” to paganism. Starting out as an Ekklesia = Messianic Kehilah (no “church” in the Bible, as “church” comes from kuriakon = pagan temple in NT times), Pergamos had degenerated into a Kehilah “thoroughly married to paganism.” The order of these Ekklesiai gives some credence to a historical progression……….

      2) To try to interpret “Nicolaitans” as done below is pure guesswork. “Nicolaitans” is again interpreted by the meaning of the parts of the word: Nico coming from Nikao = to conquer or overcome, dominate and Laitans coming from Laos = the people of God. “Nicolaitans” were the earliest form of the Clergy dominating the Laity, creating a division in the Body of Messiah, which thing God hated! Rev 2:6 But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. Ephesus was commended by not allowing any Clergy to develop, while in Pergamos it had become established practice, probably showing a time period between. Rev 2:15 So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine (maintain the teaching and practice) of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate. The historical result was and is the Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church who control the lives and salvation of their people, wrongly of course, but very heavy through the Middle Ages!! And nearly all churches follow this same clergy/laity separation in The Body, as well as many Messianic Kehilot!! There is good reason why Asia Pacific Messianic Fellowship does NOT have any Clergy!! All are Volunteers, no one paid, no titles, everyone on first-name basis in the Kehilah, as we are Brethren. Mat 23:8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.

      3) Another word, Ethnos = people in general, a nation, or ethnic groups while Laos = the people of God.

      4) I happen to have been Ordained in the Christian Church before I woke up and became Messianic about 25-30 years ago, but never in my 58 years as an overseas Missionary have I ever used any title, having observed at an early age the falseness of clergy and took to heart Matt 23 as well as Psalm 111:9: He sent redemption unto his people: he hath commanded his covenant for ever: holy and reverend is his name. Even the great preacher Spurgeon was against the title “Reverend so-and-so” as he relates in his commentary on the Psalms. Who are we to be revered?

      1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

        Dear yilmar, I appreciate your post and thoughtful reflection and I am always happy to receive correction.

        1) Pergamum is the proper name of the city in “English” which is the language of the articles on the blog. However it’s nominative Greek form is Pergamos, but if I use that too many people would not be sure what I am talking about. Just as Moses is not really Moses but Hebrew Mosheh, but that is not how most people who speak English know him. 🙂 As far as your assertion that the name of the city should be properly understood as “thoroughly married to Paganism” – you did not get that from the lexical meaning of Greek roots but from your own theological analysis and particular perspective. That is hardly objective. The city was called by this name long before John’s message. If you wish to say that this is what John (in particular) hints at in his writings, that would be fare. But that is not a provable fact of language, merely interpretive opinion.

        2) Your perspective on Nicolaitans is no different then my explanation, a mere guess guided by theological bias. I admit that my interpretation is an inference taken from Hebrew and a slew of circumstantial texts that go along in my post. You interpret it “clergy dominating laity” but John’s letter is not a work of Protestant reformation. Let’s be fare and historical. There is not laity/clergy conflict in John’s day because there is officially no church yet. Don’t interpret the language of Acts in light of later history. The primary structures that became known as churches did not have hierarchy at that point. Assembly leaders did not go to seminaries then. “Clergy dominating laity” is a good theological interpretation, but it is grossly anachronistic and simply cannot be considered historically accurate. So sorry… you did not convince me. If I have to chose an educated guess, I will respectfully stick with mine. 🙂

        1. elijahworkz

          There doesn’t need to be a “either/or” when looking at the name “Nicolaitans”. There might be several layers of meaning – both from Hebrew and from Greek.
          Hebrew might point to the substance of their teaching (the origin) and Greek – to the clever evaluation – what it is that they are actually doing by insisting on their “freedom” to eat sacrificial meat.