Who Is “the Angel Of The Church” In Revelation?

1 “To the angel of the church in Ephesus, write the following: (Rev 2:1)

The city of Ephesus was one of the most remarkable jewels of the ancient world, in fact possibly number three in population in the Asia Minor (around 150,000 people), which is located in the Modern day Turkey. When Emperor Augustus in 27 BCE moved proconsul of Asia from Pergamum to Ephesus, the great period of political and financial prosperity for the city of Ephesus has officially begun. Years later, Strabo, an important Roman historian, in his writings stated that Ephesus was a city second in greatness only to Rome itself (Strabo, Geography, Vol. 1-7, 14.1.24.) Like all cities of the ancient world this city itself was a religious institution. The Ephesians were the protectors of the cult of Artemis the Great (Acts 19:35), a Greek mother goddess of prosperity well-known and adored throughout the Mediterranean. She in turn was thought to be supremely concerned with the well-being of the city of Ephesus and by extent anyone who paid her homage from any other place in the Greco-Roman world. The Temple of Artemis was said to be so magnificent that it was counted among the seven wonders of the ancient world.

In Acts 19:8 we read that “Paul entered the synagogue and spoke boldly there for three months, arguing persuasively about the kingdom of God.” On the steps of the magnificent Library of Celsus one can even now see a picture of the Jerusalem temple menorah engraved into the stone. This shows that the book of Acts’ testimony about Jewish presence in Ephesus was accurate, even though up-to-date no Jewish synagogue has been identified among its archeological ruins.

The city of Ephesus had also a very interesting and rich history of Christ-followers connected to it. Apostle Saul (Paul) lived and worked there proclaiming the Gospel unhindered for several years (Acts 19:10). It is understood that sometime in mid-60s he wrote his 1st Letter to the Corinthians and several other letters from there. There Saul Paul stated: “…I will stay in Ephesus until Pentecost, for a wide door for effective work has opened to me, and there are many adversaries.” (1 Cor. 16:7-9). Luke stated in Acts 19:17 that “Jews and Greeks living in Ephesus… were all seized with fear, and the name of the Lord Jesus was held in high honor.” This description was authored in response to the evil spirit’s rebuke to some Judeans residing in Ephesus who used the name of Jesus and Paul for purposes of healing and exorcism (Acts 19:15-17).

In our English translations this letter is addressed to ἄγγελος (angelos) “the angel” of the Church in Ephesus. There are two terminology issues that need to be mentioned. The use of the word “church” to translate the word ἐκκλησία (ekklesia) is a bit problematic here. We are dealing here with the first century context. In the first century there were no churches, not even Jewish churches as they are sometimes being referred to. A church as an institution is by definition separate in its essences from an Israelite synagogue. Given John’s anti-Roman Jewish attitudes in this letter, we are probably dealing with mixed Israelite and non-Israelite Jesus-following assemblies in the Asia Minor.

As such it is reasonable to suggest that these assemblies would have a shared or at least be very familiar with Jewish synagogue practice. Up until today synagogues have a person, usually called is שליח ציבור (shaliach tzibur) – lit. “a public messenger”. His job was to lead people in prayer, make congregational announcements and present any correspondence received by the assembly among other things. Is it possible that this is what is meant here by the term ἄγγελος “an angel” (angelos/malach/shaliach-tzibur/messenger). This, of course as was already mentioned in other sections, is not the only interpretive option, perhaps heavenly messengers are in fact in view.

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  1. Selva Moses

    The Greek word angelos (G32), is being used that simply means messenger. Here it refers to the pastors of the seven churches. It is used of people in Rev. 1:1,20; 2:1,8,12,18; 3:1,7,14; 15:1,6,8; 16:1-17; 17:1; 21:9,17; 22:8-10 Jude 1:13.

  2. George W Walker.

    I read through more thouroughly all posts up to this point on this page.

    I see the subject of Angels and its meaning in the book of Revelation.

    I also see, only recently what was done through Ananiahs in the spiritual healing of Paul when Ananiahs laid hands on Paul and said Brother Saul,…

    Its obvious here, that since Ananias was made aware, of Pauls lack and need of understanding after his experience with Jesus, that he needed revelation from a being that he recognized.

    Ananias was Spiritually Aware of Gods Access to himself

    Yet, be was present in this world.

    He was a contact to give Paul access via Spirit Being with Earthly Presence.

    Ananias could be both Seen and Heard, while he had simoultaneous Spiritual Access to the Lord Jesus.

    Paul had had Access to the Lord Jesus, on the Road to Damascus, when he was Blinded and traveling to Damascus.

    Paul, was without knowlege of Jesus, he had need to access the Lord Jesus, and also to trust that access.

    Real Communication with the Lord Jesus, is not easy.

    It is very difficult in todays workd, but is still known perhaps, because we are today, without a unified Trust in the way your interests seem headed, towards a Valid Trust of a Spirit World, when Spiritually Authorized by the Lord Jesus.

    Who has been told, “I am Jesus, Lord of All, and if you were told that, what would be your reaction.

    Would you just assume, that Jesus has just spoken to you, and you are a mere man, and the God’s Son, of the God of Creation has really addressed you.

    But if he did, you can be assured he would fillow that with more men who he’d prepared for what ever he had planned.

    Reminds me of a question i’ve had for ages.

    How many of us, have ever had a vision of the Angel Michael.

    How many of you would reveal this publicly.

    How many of those hearing this actual fact, of an Angelic Vision, would say, hey, thats great.

    What did he say?

    Would a Pastor today say, why you?

    Why havent I seen him?

    Why did he appear to you?

    Who are you?

    And if he’d appear to you without saying one word, what would you say about why he appeared to you with no words, as he appeared.

    Strange that God, or Jesus would appear at all.

    Huh.

    Maybe its strange that the Pastor asked these questions of someone who’d seen an Angel, also.

  3. George W Walker.

    I have taken a course in Japanese, have also read much during my childhood.

    Ive found, that the term Jin was used in Arabic for a way to refer to spirits, ,We say Genie, and Anjel, in Japanese, the term used for people is Nihon Jin, where Nihon is a name for Japan.

    Im not an authority on Etymology, but in English, in the Study ive done, the Scriptures seem to refer to men as Angels or seem to say that men have ministering Angels.

    I wonder if its possible that in some cases when men talk to certain angels, of a country, or nation, are they talking to the ministering Angel of a Ruler of a nation or city state.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      It it not outside the realm of possibility. The question is whether this is the case here in Revelation.

      1. George W Walker.

        I know that its not part of your material, and its also not on the cutting edge, of what we are studying.

        I said what i did, about what we have learned and everything i recall that i have learned.

        I have also heard the idea expressed regarding the Head of the churches, being the Angels of the Seven Churches.

        The part describing the use of the word JIN, describes a situation in the use of the word for spirit in Arabic, and Japanese.

        Thus showing that Angels are involved acgively in mens lkves, as part of the man. in even other Societies.

        When i see that not many know this, and not many even talk about different understanding, then my understanding is excited to look at all possibilities.

        Ive already looked at that in a very interesting light, that of Angelic Visitation, accomplished perhaps only to use Gods Direct Angelic Involvement, in order to shape man’s involvement in a more active way in Gods Work.

        This may have been taking place all along.

        The Lack of Conversation and transference of knowlege re: Angelic Visitation, perhaps Withheld Such Knowlege.

        It may forcefully have retarded any Active involvement by man in such activities.

        One of the things ive noticed, is the substitution of the field of medicines and doctors to avoid involvement by man in Angelic activities.

        This has actually been accomplished even in Churches, by appointment of Ministera of Psychiatry.

        The subject of Angelic Visitation brings accjsations of Hallucinations when that subject is broached.

  4. RamonAntonio

    A very interesting book I’m reading now by Moises Silva: Biblical Words and Semantics makes a very compelling case of the difference between etimology and semantics, the lat being the understanding of a word or phrase in the context of the time its used in the original document. This illuminates this issues of meanings by words. I tend to look further into the semantics, the meaning, rather than into etimology, thus, I concurr with Dr. Eli’s approach. We should look for the sense of the use of any word or phrase rather than our dictionary etimology which may be an indirect reflection on the meaning sometimes.

    On who is the Angel I like very much the discussion and also agree that some questions will be with us forever. I love an answer that Father Raymond Brown gave to a journalist in an interview. The journalist asked father brown on some specific issue regarding Scripture and he calmly said… “there are some issues that I reserve to discuss personally in Heaven…”

    Even though, and continuing with my note that Jesus was indeed served personally by angels in the Gospels I tend to think that being this words by Jesus to John and literally rendering the meaning to John that the letter is addressed to be said and read to and by the angel of Ephesus, Jesus may have been saying that he who serves Him is His angel and the letter shall be sent to a servant of Jesus in Ephesus. John, a very gifted writer, then leaves the words without any other clarification for the meaning is indeed a complete sequitur: the one who reads this letter to those in Ephesus is indeed an angel of the Lord.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Ramon, shalom. Thank you for your continual contribution to our studies! I think etymology is very important, BUT it only gives you a RANGE of possible meanings and can not give us a definitive meaning in most cases, BUT coupled with the context study the probability of “getting it right” goes up significantly.

  5. John la Madrid

    “Read More Carefully” interesting comment…OK..I have re-re-reread just to my sure I’m still in the ballpark…The Article Title…Who is the ANGEL??? of the “CHURCH” the ANGEL is the issue to me not word semantics about English Greek Arabic and Hebrew dealing with home house groups in the 1st century…WHO IS THE ANGEL???? As a retired Professor I believe I still think fairly well for an old fart…And No one is dealing with the ANGEL…we all have our personal opinions on home house churches…Shalom and Blessings

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Yes, yes… some questions simply cannot be answered definitively. Does not means we should not ask them and try to answer the best we can. Three options were presented in the article body: supernatural being from God’s realm, a mere human messenger and more specifically שליח ציבור (shaliach tzibur) Synagogue prayer leader/secretary which can be translated from Hebrew into Greek as “messenger”. Shalom!

  6. Kat H

    Is the heavenly gift (Hebrews 6:4) a revelation from a Heavenly messenger, rather than the Holy Spirit itself? This would help me distinguish the role of a Heavenly messenger:)

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      I think it is a gift from God.

    2. Richard Leigh

      I think the heavenly gift of Hebrews 6:4 is the salvific enlightening gift of the Holy Spirit.

    3. jsusnme

      According to the highlighted link, Hebrews 6:4, the gift is Jesus and is distinguishable from the sharing of Holy Spirit. Here are the verses associated with Hebrews 6:4 in the link:
      q Heb 10:32

      r Jn 4:10 Eph 2:8

      s Heb 2:4 Heb 2:5 Ga 3:2 Ga 3:5

      1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

        This is a worthy discussion, but perhaps in another context. Thanks.

  7. jane z. mazzola

    Along that line, congratulations that you are progressing toward expanding the website into another language, Mandarin Chinese. No doubt there will be many looking forward to this presentation.
    Blessings for safety during Purim & all the days ahead for all of you in Israel.
    Jane M.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Thank you so much, Jane for your encouragement and support!

  8. Donna Brewer

    I just want to thank you for this information. I have been praying for help with my Bible studies for a long time. I love what little I have been able to read as I have been ill since last August. I feel blessed from your outreach. God Bless.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Thank you so much!

  9. Charles

    I still wonder why the omnipresent God requires an intermediary, other than Himself incarnate,to communicate with His humans. Just where/how do you believe “angels” fit into the scheme?

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Charles, shalom. I don’t think that existence of heavenly beings that we call angels needs to be denied if we do interpret “the
      angel of the church” to me the “shaliach tzibur” in a first century Jesus-following largely Jewish congregation in Ephesus. In other words one does not exclude the other. The fact that God sens his heavenly beings is a something happens often in the Scriptures and can not be denied, but it does not mean that every time the word MALACH/ANGELOS is used the heavenly messenger is actually in view.

    2. jsusnme

      Charles, why wouldn’t our God who is Love and grace and relationship, and who loves law, want to instill these qualities in his creations? Your comment sounds quite presumptuous of God and his plans. He’s not just Thor who hits his hammer and makes things happen. He’s more like… a weaver… a master creator, developing intricacies we’ll be forever in awe of. And the Holy Spirit is always present in the believer. He’s always talking to us, showing us. But most of the time we do not have the hearing ears or the seeing eyes. He also says he will meet every person who comes into this world. No one leaves without meeting him first.

      The angels work in the spirit world; we are spirit, bonded with Holy Spirit. They have assignments, gifts, powers of execution… all of which once given are not removed until the day of judgement (hence why the fallen angels still have their authority and power in their places in the heavenlies).

  10. Shimelis

    Dr. Eli Thanks for Edifying us with your Wonderful lessons, meanwhile please remember me in your prayers.
    Shimelis.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Thank you for your encouragement.

  11. John la Madrid

    Really like Kingsley Fulbrook response…Could John have sent an angel from Patmos to communicate with an angel on watch in Ephesus? That’s something to ponder…thanks

    1. Richard Leigh

      I like Kingsley’s response too, especially because of my honor for Pastor Wurmbrand. On the other hand, the context of the passage is that after telling John the signification of the stars in his right hand, Jesus tells him to write letters to those signified by them. The concerns are Jesus’, not John’s.

      Wurmbrand’s idea was to pray an angel take a message he had in mind to someone, not a message he’d written.

      But the seven messages in the Revelation are what Jesus wants delivered to the congregations, by the angels (messengers). If these angels were angels of heaven (where Jesus is), Jesus could tell them Himself. Then they could follow orders and deliver them to the congregations. But Jesus wants them written, and read, by messengers to the congregations. That’s why it seems so clear to me that the schaliachim idea is so correct. It makes more sense.

      1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

        Makes sense.

  12. Kingsley Fulbrook

    It doesn’t surprise me that a Jewish synagogue in Ephesus has yet to be identified: when I was there last year our guide said that less than half of ancient Ephesus had yet been excavated (it is thought). The Turkish Government don’t seem to care much about Ephesus, incidentally, since it is not even rated as a World Heritage Site yet! The excavations that have been done there were by Germans and Austrians I believe. Your suggestion of the meaning of ‘angel’ in this context as ‘shaliach tzibur’ seems very plausible. The Book of Revelation is full of Hebraisms, more so than any other NT document. On the other hand, John is marooned on Patmos, having long talks with the angels of heaven, and wondering how he is going to get messages to the mainland, so it naturally occurs to him that the angels could take them: that’s what angels do right? A similar thing occurred when Richard Wurmbrand was in solitary confinement in communist Romania. Also, Elijah wrote a letter to Jehoram from heaven after he ‘died’, so maybe it’s possible for such things to happen!

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      I agree. 🙂

  13. jane z. mazzola

    I’m curious…Chris or Dr. Eli. Would you share some of “plenty of literature to show the role of John the Elder at Ephesus”? I am truly a neophyte here. Thanks, J.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      I don’t share the views that there are plenty of literature, there are some early testimonies, none of which in anyway conclusive. Chris, can you please, show us why you think I am underrating the evidence?

  14. Chris

    It is disturbing to see the Roman Empire supported Jewish Christian element this time round rally around the Pauline orbit; there is plenty of literature to show the role of John the elder at Ephesus and also if the dialectics that we see in Acts and the Pauline corpus is maintained here – the Apostles and the rest vs. Paul, who understood God by revelation outside of koinonia – one would hardly see John feature as the pre-eminent leader in Ephesus where the Pauline corpus and Acts is concerned.

  15. Pamela Williams

    Why would a Heavenly messenger or angel, need a letter to communicate? The clarification or explanation of a church communicator, maybe similar to a church secretary; responsible for sending and receiving church communications and relaying them to the group makes contextual sense. Order and sense were very much a part of the Heavenly instructions given to Moses for Isrealite governance.

    /

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      I am glad you see my point. Thanks for the feedback.

  16. Jerry S.

    Wonderful! שליח ציבור (shaliach tzibur) – lit. “a public messenger”, lovin’ it.

    See also, Act 19:39 and 41;
    ἐκκλησία ekklēsia – is properly translated to English as “assembly” ILO “church”, why?
    Passage is referencing a riotous mob, but therein may lie a humorous irony 😉
    J.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Exactly. It is a word that does not mean to the NT audience what it means to most readers today. Good illustration.

    2. jsusnme

      awesome

  17. Mike

    Good point John.The only understanding I get from the scripture is that the Angel is not identified but it seems clear that the Angel is under instructions from Jesus.That’s just how I understand it.I’m not an authority.

  18. alexaoon

    Thank you for all the information and teaching. In the last 30 years it seems to me that much more is being understood about the book of the Revelation as we get nearer to the end. I was informed that the worship of Artemis at the temple there included a black rock which had fallen from the sky. Perhaps a meteorite. At some point it disappeared.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Glad you read these studies with us!

  19. John la Madrid

    Your Question “Who is the Angel…is not answered to me…your clarification of the word Churches is GREAT! But your question is who is the Angel????
    John la Madrid

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Dear John, not all questions can be answered, at least not with certainly. Sometimes we ask question to learn and explore the topic but that does not mean it is even possible to get to the bottom of things. 🙂

    2. jsusnme

      Perhaps that is why the title emphasizes “the church” using quotation marks.

      1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

        yes, that is the reason.

  20. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

    Dear Jack, we are not working from the standpoint of English. This is simply a misunderstanding. You see English word “church” has its own etymology and creates a particular conception familiar to the modern reader, but totally foreign to the first century audience. No, English word “church” does not mean what you said, but the Greek word ἐκκλησία actually does. And would you be surprised if you found out that this word was used to refer to secular gatherings in 1st century, and even Israel was called by this word as well in LXX. But you would not call Israel a church – would you?

    Thus the term can be misleading from historical point of view. I know what English translations of NT say, no need to quote verses to prove what there was such thing as ἐκκλησία. What I am saying is that 1st century ἐκκλησία is not what most people understand as church in modern English.

    1. Richard Leigh

      And so, might I add, the etymology of the English word “church” is from the Greek κύριος (kúrios), “lord” used, as I recall, by the Saxons (or Vikings?) for the buildings Christians were worshipping in.

      1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

        I have heard this church tradition. It sounds nice, but does not line up with base etymological data.
        http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780192830982.001.0001/acref-9780192830982-e-2759?rskey=FLm0MB&result=2760
        I believe the origin is not Greek kurios but word “circle” in European languages. At least that is what comes to mind.

    2. jsusnme

      I also understand Rev was written at the turn of the century, some 35 or so years later than the mentioned 64 a.d., when John the beloved was an old man.

  21. Jack Prentice

    I am surprised by some of the comments in this article. The word “Church” from the greek literally means “called out” which was not mentioned. The Author does not realize that there were many Churches of Christ in the first century. Revelation was written approximately 64 AD. to 7 churches already flourishing at that time.. Paul, the Apostle to the Gentiles was engaged in at least 3 journeys in starting Churches of Christ. Paul in writting to the Church at Rome in 57 -59ad closed by stating to them “The Churches of Christ Salute you” Romans 16:16. Interesting. Please clarify if I am mistaken. With Kind good wishes in Christ. Jack Prentice, Evangelist

  22. David Kritterdlik

    This leads me to think that the word ‘angel’ is not a name, but a messenger. That all angels are messengers and that each angel have an individual name like, Michael and Gabriel.

    1. jsusnme

      Eli mentions: “..synagogues have a person, usually called שליח ציבור (shaliach tzibur) – lit. “a public messenger”, and later he writes: “..the term ἄγγελος “an angel” [referring to] (angelos/malach/shaliach-tzibur/messenger).”

      In other words, angel by itself means ‘messenger’. The ‘shaliach-tzibur’ is a position which includes being the messenger for the community.

      Most angels’ names are not revealed.

      There is great evidence that the term, “The angel”, refers to Jesus throughout all scripture. (some places in new testament say ‘an angel’, but in Greek there is no ‘an’, it’s added in the English, but could distract us from what would be ‘the angel’.

    2. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Angel is a job description

  23. Kat H

    I am intrigued by revelations from heavenly messengers and readings by human messengers (Joshua 8:35). This changes my perception of when and how I was reached and heard the gospel (no church/ little Torah). I had originally understood my revelation of Christ as a twofold “need” I labeled “a Way” Heavenly messengers also explain why our faith or believing is the work of God. Somehow the letter to Ephesians sheds light on replacement theology vs unity. I’m looking forward to more…

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Glad to see that these posts are prompting some reflection, Kat. Be blessed.

      1. John la Madrid

        LOL…Not even sure all questions should even be asked…but…the question you posed was Who is the Angel??? So, don’t be to coy, share what you have studied.

        1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

          John, I refer you back to the article :-). Read it more carefully :-). I am rather clear that I think that either heavenly being or shaliach tzibur synagogal administrator type of person is in view. Eli

          1. Richard Leigh

            Meaning no offense, but I think John was hoping you had an answer to which of the either or you’d mentioned. We students come to you teachers with the hope of an answer, and you teachers always answer “No, no, no, we are only teaching you students to think, question, examine all sides and conclude for yourselves!” 🙂

            I hope John will correct me if I’m wrong.

          2. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

            I am not holding back anything secret 🙂 What I was ready to share I did. I do not wish to be banal, but I can spell things out… It is really all in the article.
            A – Ephesus had a synagogue. Form the Article – “In Acts 19:8 we read that “Paul entered the synagogue and spoke boldly there for three months, arguing persuasively about the kingdom of God.” On the steps of the magnificent Library of Celsus one can even now see a picture of the Jerusalem temple menorah engraved into the stone. This shows that the book of Acts’ testimony about Jewish presence in Ephesus was accurate, even though up-to-date no Jewish synagogue has been identified among its archeological ruins.”
            B – Jesus was known in Ephesus in Jewish context. From the article – “Luke stated in Acts 19:17 that “Jews and Greeks living in Ephesus… were all seized with fear, and the name of the Lord Jesus was held in high honor.”
            C – The word “angel” may refer to a human official. (Answer to the WHO question) Quoting from the article – “Given John’s anti-Roman Jewish attitudes in this letter, we are probably dealing with mixed Israelite and non-Israelite Jesus-following assemblies in the Asia Minor. As such it is reasonable to suggest that these assemblies would have a shared or at least be very familiar with Jewish synagogue practice. Up until today synagogues have a person, usually called is שליח ציבור (shaliach tzibur) – lit. “a public messenger”. His job was to lead people in prayer, make congregational announcements and present any correspondence received by the assembly among other things.”
            If someone wishes to speculate farther than this, by all means… but this supposition seems sufficient and I am comfortable enough with it.

  24. jane z. mazzola

    Just on different note: I am intrigued by graphic used on this post. I have done some research on it but not, successfully.
    Also, I have been reading posts of Dr.(?) Paula Fredriksen. Have a couple of ?? will post there.
    Jane M.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      The art is a 19th century artist Wacław Koniuszko (polish?) it is called Kiddush Levanah, which is a liturgical benediction over the new moon.

      1. jane z. mazzola

        Thank you, as always.

        1. jane z. mazzola

          I did find this artist and some of his other works, AND also, a very informative article @ Jewish liturgical prayer. Wonderful. Thank you again, for all the additional resources that you provide.

          1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

            You are welcome. 🙂

  25. leftfooter

    Strabo ( Στράβων) was a Greek whose family came from Amaseia in Pontus. Your articles are fascintating, and when I have less work I shall sign up.

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      You are always welcome here. Out blog posts take only a few minutes to read and we post not more then once a week…. Just remember the words of rabbi Hillel – “Do not say I will study when I will have time, for perhaps you will never have the time”

  26. Edward

    Can we link this with Rev.19:9-11?

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      Here is a different matter, the messenger has to be non-human based on context. Angels do not seem themselves superior to humans.

      1. jsusnme

        I thought the ‘bondservant’ was actually a term meaning of the womb, like the one bowing. So the angel would be a human messenger, either translated from heaven (i.e.,possibly another dimension) or earth. Wow, could it possibly have even been Elijah? I’m just saying. If this is the case then the two can be linked as similar.

  27. Wayne

    Intriguing suggestion. Any thoughts on why we don’t see this addressee in any of the Pauline or General letters?

    1. Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg

      This is excellent question, Wayne. Don’t know.

      1. The Angel Of Ephesus

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