We continue our journey through the first chapters of Luke – my favorite Gospel. So far, we’ve seen some interesting details in the first chapter; today we are going to speak about second chapter of Luke’s Gospel.
WHEN WAS JESUS BORN?
In Luke 2, an angel appeared to the shepherds in the fields and said to them, “I bring you good news … great joy for all the people.” When did this happen? The Gospel writers either did not know the time of Jesus’ birth or didn’t consider it important, so we can only speculate. Of course, the traditional date of celebrating Jesus’ birth is December 25, but the Bible nowhere points to Him being born in winter. So, when was Jesus born?
As many of you probably know, some Messianic believers celebrate Jesus’ birth during Sukkot (the Feast of Tabernacles). Is there any historical or Scriptural evidence for that? The first and most obvious argument has to do with the weather: shepherds would not be in the fields during December due to the cold and wet conditions in Judea during that time of year. On the other hand, early Fall – the time of Sukkot – does perfectly fit Luke’s account.
Second, John the Baptist’s father, Zechariah, “belonged to the priestly division of Abijah”. The twenty-four courses of the temple priesthood are found in 1 Chronicles 24. Calculations have been made showing that the Abijah division served in June. If Elisabeth conceived shortly after, her sixth month would have been December or January. This was time of Gabriel’s announcement to Miriam, and therefore Jesus would have been born nine months later, around September.
However, the most crucial arguments are theological. Here are some of the thoughts:
First of all, Sukkot is called zman simchateynu, “the season of our joy”. Would it not be a proper time to declare “great joy for all people”?
Second, when John says that the “The Word became flesh and tabernacled among us,” we could see this as an allusion to Jesus coming into this world during the Feast of Tabernacles.
We find a third possible reason in the prophecy of Zechariah, where we read that, at the end of days all the nations will come to celebrate the festival of Sukkot: “And it shall come to pass that everyone that is left of all the nations who came against Jerusalem shall go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to observe the festival of Sukkot.” It was God’s original design that the festival of Sukkot would bring the nations of the world to the true God. Thus, bringing the nations of the world to recognition and worship of the God of Israel is undoubtedly a theme common to both Sukkot and to the mission and ministry of Jesus.
PIDYON HABEN (REDEMPTION OF THE FIRST-BORN)
One of the most well-known proclamations in Christianity is Simeon’s prophetic hymn, when, in the Temple, the aged Simeon took baby Jesus up in his arms and praised God. (Lk. 2:29-32). Why was Jesus brought to the Temple? Joseph and Mary took him to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord; (as it is written … “Every firstborn male is to be consecrated to the Lord”) Luke refers here to the ceremony Pidyon Haben. Let’s have a glimpse of this ceremony.
According to the Torah, every first-born son (whose parents are not from the tribe of Levi) has to undergo the Pidyon Haben ceremony – the Redemption Ceremony of the Firstborn Son. The ceremony consists of the formal presentation of the child to kohen, accompanied by benedictions, after which the redemption price of five shekels is paid.
Since Jesus was the firstborn son of Miriam (of the line of Judah, not Levi), so he had to be redeemed. The presentation and redemption could be made to any priest, not just in Jerusalem, but since Bethlehem was only about six miles from Jerusalem, Mary and Joseph came to the Temple for two ceremonies: Mary’s purification and Pidyon Ha-Ben. It was probably after the ceremony, when Simeon and Anna – who were led there by the Spirit – prophesied and blessed the baby.
WHAT ABOUT CIRCUMCISION?
Abram was 99 years old when God appeared to him to renew and reaffirm the covenant He had formerly made. In token of this established covenant, God gave Abram and his descendants the rite of circumcision: an outward sign in the flesh as a sign and seal of an inward reality. However, in the New Testament we read of a different circumcision—circumcision of heart. According to Paul, a believer in Jesus undergoes spiritual “circumcision of Christ” – circumcision ‘made without hands’: In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands… by the circumcision of Christ.” Was this a new concept, and did it mean that under the New Covenant, “physical” circumcision was no longer necessary?
First of all, it’s important to understand that the concept of “spiritual circumcision” – “circumcision of the heart” – is already present in the book of Deuteronomy: “Circumcise, then, the foreskin of your heart;” “And the Lord your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your descendants.” Thus, the whole theme of the inner or spiritual circumcision—circumcision of the heart—came from the Torah and was by no means a new concept at the time of Jesus. Undoubtedly, the theme was developed in the New Testament, but by no means it was a new concept!
However, before we even encounter the “circumcision of the heart” in the NT, we hear of “the circumcision in the flesh”! From the Gospel of Luke, we know that both John the Baptist and Jesus Himself were circumcised (and named) on the eighth day (Luke 1:59, 2:21). Thus, the rite of circumcision given to Abraham and his offspring as a sign that they had accepted God’s covenant and belonged to God – the rite that has always been observed by the Jewish people – is clearly observed in the New Testament as well!
Luke, whether or not he was Jewish, does not record the usual things surrounding Jesus’ birth and babyhood. He tells us only about outstanding, prophetic events, like the angelic message to the shepherds and the blessing of Simeon and Anna; he doesn’t record those details of Jesus’ life that were self-evident for his contemporaries. Unfortunately, they are not as evident to us today, and precisely because of that, it is vitally important for us to understand the historical and cultural context of the New Testament: to see these texts as Second Temple Jewish texts and be able to read them through Second Temple Jewish eyes.
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 Lk. 2:22,23
 Num. 3:46-47; 8:16-18; 18:16.
 Gen. 17
 Col. 2:11.12
 Deut. 10:16
 Deut. 30:6